Ancient China – culture, art, inventions. How was life in ancient China?

Ancient China was the place where one of the oldest and longest-lived civilizations developed. We owe the former inhabitants of this country many inventions that are still in use today. What is ancient China famous for?

China Associationwhich lasted for thousands of years, developed independently and clearly stood out from the rest of the world, both culturally and religiously. ancient chinese However, they were able to significantly influence the history of mankind and the development of civilization.

The history of Chinese civilization goes back to the Neolithic era. According to the records of Confucian literature, he was to be the founder of the state Huang Di, or the Yellow Emperor The first of the five legendary rulers. else – yo great – Created a dynasty chia. The dynasty was the first historically confirmed dynasty of Chinese rulers shangWho took charge from the start Bronze Age. According to historians, at that time it was not possible to speak of a unified state. The history of the establishment of the Chinese state dates back to 1050 BC Only then, strain cho It took control of neighboring kingdoms and established borders. first ruler – wu Reconciliation of conflicting families and the creation of a strong state consisting of thousands of districts.

China, along with other nations of the Confucian Buddhist civilization, has long been distinguished from the rest of Europe. Already in antiquity, traditions played a very important role there. The love of our ancestors and the customs they started are still valid today, not only in China itself, but throughout East Asia.

Ancient China was characterized by a very dynamic civilized development. This was largely due to the cult work there. The ancient Chinese saw society as a single organism, and each person had to be his cell with a specific role.

Another feature that distinguished the inhabitants of ancient China and distinguished them from European peoples was their own perception of time. Heraclitus of Ephesus used to say that you cannot enter the same river twice. This saying clearly illustrates the European point of view on the subject. In our opinion, time is a flowing stream that is constantly changing, just like the water in a river. For the Chinese, time consisted of cycles that circulated in a ring. This was reflected in the ancient Chinese language, where there was no conjugation.

In ancient times, peoples inhabited the area later China They were engaged in hunting and fishing. When nomads began to settle in the valleys of two great rivers – the Huang He and the Yangtze – agriculture developed. They were favored by very favorable natural conditions – the fertile soil produced abundant crops. It was the basis of agriculture rice. In addition, it has also been cultivated barley and wheat. The early Chinese farmers were engaged not only in the production of grain, but also mainly in animal husbandry Sheep, goats, cows and poultry. I was born too Fish, shellfish and crustaceans.

With the growth of the population, the building began Villages and small townswhich was surrounded by walls. Such an organization of settlements serves to protect farm animals from predators. The sedentary lifestyle allowed the development of handicrafts. Production started clay potsThe tools that were used in everyday work were richly decorated.

The development of society led to a situation in which the centralization of power was necessary. The emperor was at the head of the state. As the “Son of Heaven” he exercised absolute power. The ruler was also the high priest and commander of the armed forces.

In ancient times, marriages were arranged and formed a special contract concluded between two families. Trade unions are not registered by local and central authorities. Older family members decided to choose a partner, but were helped by matchmakers who acted as mediators. For the young, it was their duty to marry, bear children, and expand the offspring of the family.

Polygamy was practiced in much of ancient China. In addition to the lawful husband, a man can also concubineAnd even a few concubines. Extramarital relations were not unusual and were acceptable as long as the man slept with a woman of lower social status.

Chinese civilization paid great attention to the power of reason, which has translated into the dynamic development of many fields of science. One example is medicine. Already in ancient times, the Chinese practiced acupuncture, they also used Medicinal properties of plants He developed a theory about the relationship between the work of the heart and the circulatory system. In addition, they were the first to take a pulse and introduce vaccinations.

Another field developed in ancient China was mathematics. The decimal system was introduced there already in the Shang Dynasty. Then the Chinese met too negative numberswhich was written in black to distinguish it from the positivity (the positivity was written in red ink).

Listed the greatest achievements of ancient China, the development of writing can not be ignored. The oldest traces of writing – the inscriptions on oracle bones – date back to the fourteenth century BC

The ancient Chinese perfected the art crafting itemsthat was supposed to facilitate everyday life. The most interesting inventions of ancient China that have survived to this day are:

  • toilet paper Paper was invented around 105 AD by Kai Lun. The first records of its use for health purposes date back to 589;
  • banknotes Paper money is the primary means of payment today. We also owe this invention to China. The first banknotes, then without denominations, were introduced into circulation there in the 7th century. This freed merchants from having to carry heavy coins with them;
  • fork – On the Old Continent, the fork came into use in Byzantium in the Middle Ages. In China, this practical invention has been known since 2400 BC;
  • fan The first indoor air cooling fan was invented in the Han Dynasty. The device is equipped with seven three-meter shovels that work with the power of human muscle.

ancient china art It is one of the oldest and most authentic in the world. It evolved in conditions of relative isolation, which made it unique. There are two features of Chinese art – subtlety and utility. Even those products that represented the highest technical level had to remain fully functional. It must be emphasized that it was valid in ancient Chinese art Ancestor worship.

ancient china culture It was formed under the influence of the philosophical and religious systems to which the inhabitants of this country adhered. Moral values ​​were preferred over the religious and mythological perception of the world, which was reflected in literature.

In ancient China, two major religions, or rather philosophical and religious systems, developed. The first is Taoism. The creation of this philosophy is attributed to the sage Laozi, who in the VI century BC began to proclaim his views. Religious Taoism developed in the first century AD.

Confucianism is considered the second most important philosophical and religious system in ancient China. Confucius started it in the fifth century BC In the 1st century AD, Buddhism reached ancient China. Christianity and Islam did not appear there until the seventh century AD

Already in ancient times it was China One of the most populous countries in the world.

traditional Chinese class division Formed in antiquity. Wayne occupied the highest position in society, that is, people who could write. The lowest rank respectively: the Mong, that is, the farmers, artisans, and merchants of the Shang.

This custom was practiced in ancient China Little finger nail transplant. Its height was proportional to the position a person occupies in society.

the biggest chinese map It dates back to the fourth century BC

The first emperor of China united Road Show. Thanks to this, goods for trade can be transported freely by carts.

The First Emperor of China – Qin Shi HuangAnd – he ascended the throne when he was only 13 years old. The young ruler ordered the murder of his brothers, and sentenced his mother and father to exile. He did it so that no one would threaten his position.

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